What is Purchase Price Variance PPV? Calculation of PPV cost and Examples

The purchase price variance is the variance created by the actual price paid to a vendor for material compared to the standard cost. Purchase price variance (PPV) is a metric that businesses use to measure the difference between the actual cost of an item and its standard, predetermined cost. This measurement is crucial in understanding how well a company manages its procurement processes and recognizes potential price fluctuations. In this article, we will discuss the purpose of PPV, its benefits, and how to calculate it. We hope this article has helped to shed some light on purchase price variance and how it can affect your business.

  • During the subsequent year, Hodgson only buys 8,000 units, and so cannot take advantage of purchasing discounts, and ends up paying $5.50 per widget.
  • The standard cost of an item is its expected or budgeted cost based on engineering or production data.
  • Procurement organizations play a role in adjusting the cost of materials while ensuring high-quality materials.
  • The company’s general ledger accounts for inventories (raw materials, work-in-process inventory, finished goods) and the cost of goods sold will contain the standard cost per pound for the raw materials.
  • In accounting, purchase price variance (PPV) is used when a business plans its annual budget.

Calculating the purchase price variance and understanding the output of your calculation is important. In this example, the purchase price variance is $500,000 ($2,000,000 – $1,500,000). To better understand how to calculate the purchase price variance, let’s look at an example. Using procurement management software to streamline purchasing greatly improves the efficiency and cost effectiveness of ordering supplies and products.

How to calculate purchase price variance?

This tool helps in benchmarking and keeping an eye on prices, which are essential for successful procurement. In the world of finance, where every penny counts, finance teams often turn their attention to a critical tool called Purchase Price Variance. The more certainty you have in keeping your costs stable or predictable, the more you can make better and more informed business decisions. Join our community to get finance, operations, and procurement resources straight to your inbox. While the price had previously been $1 per unit, chip demand increases have caused the price to jump 50%. Understanding the importance—and limitations—of PPV metrics can improve cost outcomes for every purchase while keeping your numbers in the proper context.

It is crucial to understand the standard price for goods and services when negotiating new purchases. Understanding the concept grants tremendous insights that can be further used to alternate the existing pricing strategies and get a better perspective on business operations and how consumers perceive them. Another common cause of PPV is differences in the quality of the goods or services being purchased.

Purchase Price Variance or PPV is a metric used by procurement teams to measure the effectiveness of the organisation’s or individual’s ability to deliver cost savings. This concept is vital in cost accounting for evaluating the effectiveness of the company’s annual budget exercise. For the preparation of the budget, the standard price is the one that the management estimates to pay.

  • It is also vital for inventory management because you want to purchase items at the right amount, not too much or too little stock.
  • When calculating the phenomenon, one should consider several crucial elements.
  • The important aspect of purchase price variance depends on the baseline price.
  • In many companies, not having a proper procurement process and strategy can lead to many basis points reduction in their overall profitability leading to significant financial losses over time.

When the actual purchase price is lower than your standard price, it means that you are saving money and spending less than what the company was willing to pay. Procurement organizations play a role in adjusting the cost of materials while ensuring high-quality materials. Understanding the relationship between the actual cost of the product, standards, and variances, along with potential consequences, as this can lead to better supply chain management. Purchase Price Variance relates to the price difference between the standard and actual costs, while Purchase Quantity Variance deals with differences in the expected and actual quantities purchased. There are a number of factors that can cause purchase price variance (PPV).

Product Features

In cost accounting, price variance comes into play when a company is planning its annual budget for the following year. The standard price is the price a company’s management team thinks it should pay for an item, which is normally an input for its own product or service. If the actual cost incurred is lower than the standard cost, this what is the abbreviation for million is considered a favorable price variance. If the actual cost incurred is higher than the standard cost, this is considered an unfavorable price variance. However, achieving a favorable price variance might only be achieved by purchasing goods in large quantities, which may put the business at risk of never using some of its inventory.

How do I calculate purchase price variance?

The most common cause is changes in the market price of the goods or services being purchased. This can be due to inflation, supply and demand, or other economic factors. There are many ways companies can reduce purchase price variance helping them keep costs in control. The standard price is the price that engineers believe the company should pay for an item, given a certain quality level, purchasing quantity, and speed of delivery.

Fixed overhead variance

By understanding the PPV formula and how to calculate it, organizations can make informed decisions about their purchasing processes and improve their bottom line. The company has changed suppliers for any number of reasons, resulting in a new cost structure that is not yet reflected in the standard. You already know benchmarking and price tracking are important activities for a successful procurement practice. The data these activities provide offers the best point of reference for understanding fair pricing on goods and services. This guide explains the 5 major approaches to cost savings in procurement. 23 different savings methods are explained, from Hard Savings to Cost Avoidance.

PPV is arguably the most important metric in determining whether cost reduction is being achieved. It is also a vital measurement of the effectiveness of the procurement team. With input costs often accounting for a substantial portion of overall expenses, tracking and reducing PPV becomes crucial in achieving cost reduction and operational excellence. Because production costs are highly influenced by PPV of the materials, many focus on saving money to keep their PPV working in their favor.

It’s important to note that the DMPV includes only the direct materials in a product, not indirect materials. The favorable cost variance usually occurs when the purchase price is more than the actual cost. Based on the formula above, a company can find the price differentiation regarding the price of materials purchased and the further price for a product. Understanding the role of materials in product production is vital for determining the proper price strategy. The amount a company is willing to spend per unit of item purchase then becomes the company’s standard price.

Properly contextualized, PPV can highlight the success of procurement initiatives. It can significantly impact your bottom line, so it’s essential to understand how to calculate it and what factors affect it. Imagine it as your financial compass, guiding you through the intricate seas of procurement to help you find the best deals and stay on budget.


Forecasted quantities should be based on expected market demand (and production volumes), but often this information is not accurate or available for all business units and regions. But this is a very simplistic approach as commodity price volatility is often outside the control of buyers. In the worst cases, PPV as a performance measure can lead to politics around Standard Price setting instead of providing a motivating KPI for the procurement team.

What is Purchase Price Variance? Why and How is it Calculated?

As shown, calculating price variation depends on one’s ability to calculate actual price and purchase price variance. If the calculation leads to a favorable sales price variance, the higher selling price realized is greater than the one anticipated in the standard. In turn, an unfavorable price variance shows that the average selling price was lower than the one anticipated.